Marriage, Birth Control
Buddhist Views on Marriage
In Buddhism, marriage is regarded as entirely a personal, individual concern and not as a religious duty.
Marriage is a social convention, an institution created by man for the well-being and happiness of man, to differentiate human society from animal life and to maintain order and harmony in the process of procreation. Even though the Buddhist texts are silent on the subject of monogamy or polygamy, the Buddhist laity is advised to limit themselves to one wife. The Buddha did not lay rules on married life but gave necessary advice on how to live a happy married life. There are ample inferences in His sermons that it is wise and advisable to be faithful to one wife and not to be sensual and to run after other women. The Buddha realized that one of the main causes of man's downfall is his involvement with other women (Parabhava Sutta).Man must realize the difficulties, the trials and tribulations that he has to undergo just to maintain a wife and a family. These would be magnified many times when faced with calamities. Knowing the frailties of human nature, the Buddha did, in one of His precepts, advise His followers of refrain from committing adultery or sexual misconduct.
The Buddhist views
on marriage are very liberal: in Buddhism, marriage is regarded entirely
as personal and individual concern, and not as a religious duty. There
are no religious laws in Buddhism compelling a person to be married, to
remain as a bachelor or to lead a life of total chastity. It is not laid
down anywhere that Buddhists must produce children or regulate the number
of children that they produce. Buddhism allows each individual the freedom
to decide for himself all the issues pertaining to marriage. It might be
asked why Buddhist monks do not marry, since there are no laws for or against
marriage. The reason is obviously that to be of service to mankind, the
monks have chosen a way of life which includes celibacy. Those who renounce
the worldly life keep away from married life voluntarily to avoid various
worldly commitments in order to maintain peace of mind and to dedicate
their lives solely to serve others in the attainment of spiritual emancipation.
Although Buddhist monks do not solemnize a marriage ceremony, they do perform
religious services in order to bless the couples.
Separation or divorce is not prohibited in Buddhism though the necessity would scarcely arise if the Buddha's injunctions were strictly followed. Men and women must have the liberty to separate if they really cannot agree with each other. Separation is preferable to avoid miserable family life for a long period of time. The Buddha further advises old men not to have young wives as the old and young are unlikely to be compatible, which can create undue problems, disharmony and downfall (Parabhava Sutta).
A society grows through
a network of relationships which are mutually inter-twined and inter-dependent.
Every relationship is a whole hearted commitment to support and to protect
others in a group or community. Marriage plays a very important part in
this strong web of relationships of giving support and protection. A good
marriage should grow and develop gradually from understanding and not impulse,
from true loyalty and not just sheer indulgence. The institution of marriage
provides a fine basis for the development of culture, a delightful association
of two individuals to be nurtured, and to be free from loneliness, deprivation
and fear. In marriage, each partner develops a complementary role, giving
strength and moral courage to one another, each manifesting a supportive
and appreciative recognition of the other's
skills. There must be no thought of either man or woman being superior?each
is complementary to the other, a partnership of equality, exuding gentleness,
generosity, calm and dedication.
Birth Control, Abortion and Suicide
Although man has freedom to plan his family according to his own convenience, abortion is not justifiable.
There is no reason for Buddhists to oppose birth control. They are at liberty to use any of the old or modern measures to prevent conception. Those who object to birth control by saying that it is against God's law to practise it, must realize that their concept regarding this issue is not reasonable. In birth control what is done is to prevent the coming into being of an existence. There is no killing involved and there is no akusala kamma. But if they take any action to have an abortion, this action is wrong because it involves taking away or destroying a visible or invisible life. Therefore, abortion is not justifiable.
According to the Teachings of the Buddha, five conditions must be present to constitute the evil act of killing. They are:
a living being
knowledge or awareness it is a living being
intention of killing
effort to kill, and
Under certain circumstances,
people feel compelled to do that for their own convenience. But they should
not justify this act of abortion as somehow or other they will have to
face some sort of bad karmic results. In certain countries abortion is
legalized, but this is to overcome some problems. Religious principles
should never be surrendered for the pleasure of man. They stand for the
welfare of the whole mankind.
Taking one's own life under any circumstances is morally and spiritually wrong. Taking one's own life owing to frustration or disappointment only causes greater suffering. Suicide is a cowardly way to end one's problems of life. A person cannot commit suicide if his mind is pure and tranquil. If one leaves this world with a confused and frustrated mind, it is most unlikely that he would be born again in a better condition. Suicide is an unwholesome or unskillful act since it is encouraged by a mind filled with greed, hatred and delusion. Those who commit suicide have not learnt how to face their problems, how to face the facts of life, and how to use their mind in a proper manner. Such people have not been able to understand the nature of life and worldly conditions.
Some people sacrifice
their own lives for what they deem as a good and noble cause. They take
their own life by such methods as self-immolation, bullet-fire, or starvation.
Such actions may be classified as brave and courageous. However, from the
Buddhist point of view, such acts are not to be condoned. The Buddha has
clearly pointed out that the suicidal states of mind lead to further suffering.
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